oblique: a plane or section not perpendicular to the xyz coordinate system, such as long and short axis views of the heart
octreotide (Sandostatin®): a synthetic protein that is similar to the naturally-occurring hormone called somatostatin. Octreotide decreases the production of many substances in the body such as insulin and glucagon (involved in regulating blood sugar), growth hormone, and chemicals that affect digestion.
ODC: ornithine decarboxylase; a rate-limiting enzyme in the pathway of mammalian polyamine biosynthesis. Polyamines affect DNA, RNA and protein synthesis. For these reasons, ODC activity is said to be closely associated with tumor promotion. Green tea polyphenols inhibit ODC resulting in a decrease in polyamine synthesis and cell growth.
omega 3 fatty acids: are nutritional elements essential to human health which cannot be produced by the body. They can be found in fish and other marine life. Also known as polyunsaturated fatty acids
oncolytic virus: a virus that causes death of a tumor cell; after the Greek word onkos for tumor or mass
organ: a group of tissues that work in concert to carry out a specific set of functions (e.g., the heart or the lungs or the prostate)
orgasm: the highest point of sexual excitement, characterized by strong feelings of pleasure and marked normally by ejaculation of semen by the male and by vaginal contractions in the female; also called climax
orphan drug: a category created by US FDA for medications used to treat diseases that occur rarely (less than 200,000 cases) or that there is no hope for recovery of development costs, so there is little financial incentive for industry to develop them; orphan drug status gives the manufacturer financial incentives to provide the drug
osteoarthritis: noninflammatory degenerative joint disease occurring chiefly in older persons characterized by changes in the bone and cartilage the joints and a progressive wearing down of joint surfaces
osteopenia: a reduction in the bone density that is more than one standard deviation from the normal bone density; using the T score it is T=-1.0 down to T= -2.4; once the T score is less than 2.4, the patient is defined as having osteoporosis
overstaging: the assignment of an overly high clinical stage at initial diagnosis because of the difficulty of assessing the available information with accuracy (e.g., stage T3b as opposed to stage T2b)