IAD (intermittent androgen deprivation): ADT that discontinues testosterone lowering therapy with the intent to allow the patient to recover from symptoms of ADS as testosterone levels recover to normal; same as IHT or IAS. See our paper Intermittent Androgen Deprivation
IAS: intermittent androgen suppression; same as IAD, IHT
IGF-1: Insulin growth factor 1
IGRTIGRT: a procedure that uses a computer to create a picture of a tumor to help guide the radiation beam during radiation therapy. The pictures are made using CT, ultrasound, X-ray, or other imaging techniques. IGRT makes radiation therapy more accurate and causes less damage to healthy tissue. Also called image-guided radiation therapy. (source: www.cancer.org)
IHT: intermittent hormone therapy; see IAD
IL-1(interleukin-1): a cell product involved in the immune response (cytokine) which facilitates osteoblast growth among its many functions; see issue 2 of Insights for a more detailed description with illustrations
imaging: a radiology technique or method allowing a physician to see a graphic representation of something that would not normally be visible
immune reaction: a bodily defense reaction that recognizes an invading substance (an antigen: such as a virus or fungus or bacteria or transplanted organ) and produces antibodies specific against that antigen
immune system: the biological system which protects a person or animal from the effects of foreign materials such as bacteria, viruses, cancer cells, and other things which might make that person or animal sick
immunopositive: a positive result is observed on immunostaining for the target substance
immunoreaction, immunoreactivity: See immune reaction.
immunostaining: the staining of a specific substance by using an antibody against it which is complexed (formed into a complex) with a staining medium
immunotherapy: treatment of disease by inducing, enhancing, or suppressing an immune system response.
implant: a device that is inserted into the body; e.g., a tiny container of radioactive material inserted in or near a tumor (see brachytherapy); also a device inserted in order to replace or substitute for an ability which has been lost; for example, a penile implant is a device which can be surgically inserted into the penis to provide rigidity for intercourse
IMRT (intensity modulated radiation therapy): an approach to radiation therapy allowing the treatment team to specify the tumor target dose and the amount of radiation allowable to the nearby tissues and uses sophisticated computer planning to arrive at acceptable equations; sophisticated hardware is also incorporated into this planning that allows the radiation intensity to be modulated up or down as the delivery system rotates around the patient – see our paper Targeting For Cure: Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy
incidental: insignificant or irrelevant; for example, incidental prostate cancer (also known as latent prostate cancer) is a form of prostate cancer which is of no clinical significance to the patient in whom it is discovered
incontinence: (urinary incontinence) loss of urinary control; there are various kinds and degrees of incontinence; overflow incontinence is a condition in which the bladder retains urine after voiding; as a consequence, the bladder remains full most of the time, resulting in involuntary seepage of urine from the bladder; stress incontinence is the involuntary discharge of urine when there is increased pressure upon the bladder, as in coughing or straining to lift heavy objects; total incontinence is the inability to voluntarily exercise control over the sphincters of the bladder neck and urethra, resulting in total loss of retentive ability – see our paper Incontinence Treatment Options for Post-Prostatectomy
indolent: minimal disease, defined as < 0.5 cc of cancer confined to the prostate with no Gleason grade 4 or 5
induration: an increase in the fibrous elements in tissue, a hardened mass or formation, which if felt during a DRE is worrisome
Insights: the newsletter of the Prostate Cancer Research Institute (PCRI Insights)
insulin: hormone that helps the body use glucose (sugar) for energy
insulin growth factor1 (IGF-1): a growth factor that stimulates PC cell growth and osteoblast growth
interleukin (IL): any of various compounds of low molecular weight that are produced by T-cells and macrophages and that function especially in regulation of the immune system and cell-mediated immunity
interstitial: within a particular organ; for example, interstitial prostate radiation therapy is radiation therapy applied within the prostate using implanted radioactive pellets or seeds (see also brachytherapy)
intracrinology: the part of endocrinology that focuses on the fact that, in men and women, an important proportion of androgens and estrogens are synthesized locally at their site of action in peripheral target tissues
intraglandular prostate cancer: See organ confined disease (OCD).
inverse planning: Treatment planning for radiation therapy in which various aspects of the treatment plan are generated by a computer in order to achieve the dose distribution prescribed by a physician
Iodine-125: radioactive source used for brachytherapy. I=125 gives off energy at a slow and continuous rate. The half life of iodine is 60 days.
IPSS: (international prostate symptom score) –see AUA Symptom Score
Iressa®: the trade name for gefitinib