G-CSF: granulocyte colony-stimulating factor
G0G1 growth phase: with G0 being the relatively dormant phase of the cell growth cycle and G1 the phase just preceding DNA synthesis or S-phase
gastrin: hormone released after eating, which causes the stomach to produce more acid
gefitinib (Iressa®): a drug that blocks cancer cell growth signals caused by an enzyme called tyrosine kinase. Iressa® blocks several of these tyrosine kinases, including one associated with Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGF)
gene, adj. genetic: the unit of DNA that carries physical characteristics from parent to child
genitourinary system (GU system): In the male, pertaining to the organs comprising the genital and urinary system. This includes the testicles, penis, seminal vesicles, urethra, bladder, ureters and kidneys
genome: the total genetic content contained in a haploid set of chromosomes in single or multi-celled organisms, in a single chromosome in bacteria, or in the DNA or RNA of viruses; an organism's genetic material
GH (growth hormone): a pituitary hormone shown to stimulate amino acid uptake into tissues, promote DNA and RNA and protein synthesis, have a role in cell division and hypertrophy and increase bone growth and lean body mass
Gleason grade: a widely used method for classifying prostate cancer tissue for the degree of loss of the normal glandular architecture (size, shape and differentiation of glands); a grade from 1–5 is assigned successively to each the two most predominant tissue patterns present in the examined tissue sample and are added together to produce the Gleason score; high numbers indicate poor differentiation and therefore more aggressive cancer.
Gleason score: two Gleason Grade numbers are added together to produce the Gleason Score. The first Gleason Grade number indicates the Gleason Grade of the cancer cells found most commonly within the sample, the second number the second most commonly found grade. For example, a Gleason Score of 4+3=7 means that Gleason Grade 4 is the most commonly found type of cell, Gleason Grade 3 the second most commonly found, producing a total Gleason Score of 7. Related Paper
glucocorticoid: any of a group of anti-inflammatory steroid like compounds, such as hydrocortisone, that are produced by the adrenal cortex, are involved in carbohydrate, protein, and fat metabolism, and are used as anti-inflammatory agents
glutathione: a compound of the amino acids glycine, cystine, and glutamic acid occurring widely in plant and animal tissues and forming reduced and oxidized forms important in biological oxidation-reduction reactions
glutathione S-transferase: a protein which plays an important role in inactivating chemicals that are able to cause gene damage and promote genetic instability. A recent study has shown that this protein is deactivated very early in the development of prostate cancer.
glycemia, glycemic: the concentration of glucose in the blood. It is usually expressed in milligrams per deciliter (mg/dl).
glycolysis: a set of ten chemical reactions that is the first stage in the metabolism of glucose
glycoprotein: any of a group of conjugated proteins that contain a carbohydrate as the nonprotein component
GNRH: gonadotropin-releasing hormone, see LHRH
goserelin acetate (Zoladex®): a luteinizing hormone releasing hormone (LHRH) analog used in the hormonal treatment of advanced prostate cancer and in the adjuvant and neoadjuvant hormonal treatment of earlier stages of prostate cancer
grade: a means of describing the potential degree of severity of a cancer; see Gleason Grade
granulocyte: any of a group of white blood cells having granules in the cytoplasm
gynecomastia: enlargement or tenderness of the male breasts or nipples; a possible side effect of hormonal therapy which leads to increased levels of estrogens as seen with DES, antiandrogen monotherapy (Flutamide® or Casodex®) or the combination of the latter with Proscar®