Glossary G

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G-CSF: granulocyte colony-stimulating factor

G0G1 growth phase: with G0 being the relatively dormant phase of the cell growth cycle and G1 the phase just preceding DNA synthesis or S-phase

G1 arrest: arrest or halting the cell cycle at the stage of G1; the normal sequence is G1-S-G2-M

gantry: Radiation therapy hardware from which the linear accelerator delivers its energy; the multileaf collimator MLC is attached to the gantry and modulates the radiation beam as it exits

gastrin: hormone released after eating, which causes the stomach to produce more acid

gastrointestinal (GI): related to the digestive system and/or the intestines

gefitinib (Iressa®): a drug that blocks cancer cell growth signals caused by an enzyme called tyrosine kinase. Iressa® blocks several of these tyrosine kinases, including one associated with Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGF)

gene, adj. genetic: the unit of DNA that carries physical characteristics from parent to child

genital system: the biological system that, in males, includes the testicles, the vas deferens, the prostate and the penis

genitourinary system (GU system): In the male, pertaining to the organs comprising the genital and urinary system. This includes the testicles, penis, seminal vesicles, urethra, bladder, ureters and kidneys

genome: the total genetic content contained in a haploid set of chromosomes in single or multi-celled organisms, in a single chromosome in bacteria, or in the DNA or RNA of viruses; an organism's genetic material

genomic instability: the instability of genetic material as a result of destructive chemical processes that lead to mutation

GH (growth hormone): a pituitary hormone shown to stimulate amino acid uptake into tissues, promote DNA and RNA and protein synthesis, have a role in cell division and hypertrophy and increase bone growth and lean body mass

gland: a structure or organ that produces a substance which is used in another part of the body

gland volume (GV): the size in cubic centimeters or grams of the prostate gland

glans penis: cap-shaped expansion at the end of the penis, having the urethral opening at the center.

Gleason: name of physician who developed the Gleason grading system commonly used to grade prostate cancer

Gleason grade: a widely used method for classifying prostate cancer tissue for the degree of loss of the normal glandular architecture (size, shape and differentiation of glands); a grade from 1–5 is assigned successively to each the two most predominant tissue patterns present in the examined tissue sample and are added together to produce the Gleason score; high numbers indicate poor differentiation and therefore more aggressive cancer.

Gleason score: two Gleason Grade numbers are added together to produce the Gleason Score. The first Gleason Grade number indicates the Gleason Grade of the cancer cells found most commonly within the sample, the second number the second most commonly found grade. For example, a Gleason Score of 4+3=7 means that Gleason Grade 4 is the most commonly found type of cell, Gleason Grade 3 the second most commonly found, producing a total Gleason Score of 7. Related Paper

glia: supportive tissue of the brain. There are three types of glial tissue: astrocytes, oligodendrocytes and microglia. Glial cells do not conduct electrical impulses, as do neurons.

glucocorticoid: any of a group of anti-inflammatory steroid like compounds, such as hydrocortisone, that are produced by the adrenal cortex, are involved in carbohydrate, protein, and fat metabolism, and are used as anti-inflammatory agents

glucose: an optically active sugar; the usual form in which carbohydrate is assimilated by animals

glutathione: a compound of the amino acids glycine, cystine, and glutamic acid occurring widely in plant and animal tissues and forming reduced and oxidized forms important in biological oxidation-reduction reactions

glutathione S-transferase: a protein which plays an important role in inactivating chemicals that are able to cause gene damage and promote genetic instability. A recent study has shown that this protein is deactivated very early in the development of prostate cancer.

glycemia, glycemic: the concentration of glucose in the blood. It is usually expressed in milligrams per deciliter (mg/dl).

glycolysis: a set of ten chemical reactions that is the first stage in the metabolism of glucose

glycoprotein: any of a group of conjugated proteins that contain a carbohydrate as the nonprotein component

GM-CSF: granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor

GNRH: gonadotropin-releasing hormone, see LHRH

goserelin acetate (Zoladex®): a luteinizing hormone releasing hormone (LHRH) analog used in the hormonal treatment of advanced prostate cancer and in the adjuvant and neoadjuvant hormonal treatment of earlier  stages of prostate cancer

GP: general practice physician

grade: a means of describing the potential degree of severity of a cancer; see Gleason Grade

granulocyte: any of a group of white blood cells having granules in the cytoplasm

gray (Gy): The SI (Systeme International) unit of absorbed radiation dose:
1 Gy = 1 joule/kg = 100 rads
1/100 Gy = 1 centigray (cGy)

GTP: green tea polyphenols, the active substances within green tea

gynecomastia: enlargement or tenderness of the male breasts or nipples; a possible side effect of hormonal therapy which leads to increased levels of estrogens as seen with DES, antiandrogen monotherapy (Flutamide® or Casodex®) or the combination of the latter with Proscar®