EBRT (external beam radiation therapy): external beam radiation treatment that can include conventional photons, or use protons, neutrons, or electrons. This may be given conventionally or with 3D conformal techniques; see also IMRT.
ECE: an abbreviation for extra-capsular extension
ECOG Performance Status: criteria used by doctors and researchers to assess how a patient’s disease is progressing, assess how the disease affects the daily living abilities of the patient, and determine appropriate treatment and prognosis. See also: Karnofsky Performance Status
efferent: moving or carrying outward or away from a central part. Refers to vessels, nerves, etc. For example: blood vessels carrying blood away from the heart or nerves carrying signals from the brain
EGF: epidermal growth factor; a polypeptide hormone that stimulates cell proliferation by binding to receptor proteins on the cell surface
eicosanoid: any of a class of compounds derived from polyunsaturated fatty acids (as arachidonic acid) and involved in cellular activity
ejaculation: the release of semen through the penis during orgasm; ejaculation may be termed “dry” if there is scanty or no fluid component to the ejaculate resulting from radiation therapy or surgery.
ELISA: enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay; a sensitive immunoassay that uses an enzyme linked to an antibody or antigen as a marker for the detection of a specific protein, especially an antigen or antibody; often used as a diagnostic test to determine exposure to a particular infectious agent, such as the AIDS virus, by identifying antibodies present in a blood sample; see immunoassay
EMCYT: see estramustine phosphate
endocrine: pertaining to ductless glands that secrete hormones into the blood stream
endocrinology: the study of hormones, their function, the organs that produce them and how they are produced
endorectal: (inserted) within the rectum
endorectal MRI: magnetic resonance imaging performed with a coil placed in the rectum, may be combined with endorectal magnetic resonance spectroscopy (developed at University of California at San Francisco and Memorial Sloan Kettering in New York City) See our paper The Role of Combined MRI & MRSI in Treating Prostate Cancer
endothelin-A receptor: involved in facilitating several aspects of prostate cancer progression, including proliferation, escape from apoptosis, invasion, and new bone formation when activated by endothelin-1
endothelin-1 (ET-1): a prostate cell product that stimulates osteoblasts, acts as a vasoconstrictor (narrows blood vessels) and may be responsible for bone pain in metastatic prostate cancer; blockers of the receptor for ET-1 are in clinical trials and showing promise e.g. Atrasentan®
epididymis: tightly coiled, thin-walled tube that conducts sperm from the testes to the vas deferens and provides for the storage, transmission, and maturation of sperm; inflammation of the epididymis is called epididymitis
epinephrine: a hormone and neurotransmitter (Also called adrenaline); one of the secretions of the adrenal glands. It helps the liver release glucose (sugar) and limit the release of insulin; it also makes the heart beat faster and can raise blood pressure
epithelial cell: in PC the cells within the prostate that line the ducts and functionally secrete chemicals such as PSA into the blood stream or into the duct openings or lumen
epithelium, epithelial: the covering of internal and external surfaces of the body, including the lining of vessels and other small cavities. It consists of cells joined by small amounts of cementing substances. Epithelium is classified into types on the basis of the number of layers deep and the shape of the superficial cells.
ER (estrogen receptor): the docking site on the cell or in the cell for estrogen
erectile dysfunction (ED): an inability to get or maintain an erection; see impotence.
estradiol: the most potent naturally occurring estrogen. In men it is naturally produced in small amounts.
estrogen: a female hormone or estrogen (e.g., diethylstilbestrol) used in the treatment of PC
estrogen receptor (ER): the docking site on the cell or in the cell for estrogen
eukaryotic: a single-celled or multicellular organism whose cells contain a distinct membrane-bound nucleus
Eulexin®: the brand or trade name of flutamide in the USA
exogenous: developed or originating outside the organism, as exogenous disease
expression: the process by which a gene's coded information is converted into the structures present and operating in the cell. Expressed genes include those that are transcribed into mRNA and then translated into protein and those that are transcribed into RNA but not translated into protein.
external beam radiation therapy (EBRT): a form of radiation therapy in which the radiation is delivered by a machine directed at the area to be radiated as opposed to radiation given within the target tissue such as brachytherapy, see also IMRT
extra-capsular extension (ECE): cancer extending beyond the prostate capsule