There are many different types of treatment that are available for those that have been diagnosed with prostate cancer. To treat prostate cancer, there are six types of standard treatment, which has been used by doctors. There are also many clinical trial procedures which are research studies that are created to help improve treatments and obtain information on new treatment plans for cancer patients.
- Pelvic lymphadenectomy: This is a surgical treatment to remove lymph nodes that are in the pelvis. Doctors look at the tissue under the microscope for cancer cells. If cancer is spotted in the lymph nodes, the doctor will not remove the prostate and can recommend other treatments.
- Radical prostatectomy: This is a surgical procedure which removes the prostate, seminal vesticals, and surrounding tissues. There are 2 types of this procedure.
- Retropubic prostatectomy: This is a surgical procedure which removes the prostate through a cut in the abdominal wall. Doctors may also remove nearby lymph nodes.
- Perineal prostatectomy: This is a surgical procedure that removes the prostate through an incision made in the area between the scrotum and the anus (perineum).
- Transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP): This is a surgical procedure that removes tumors from the prostate using a resectoscope (a lighted tube with a cutting tool) that is inserted through the urethra. Oftentimes, this procedure is done to relieve symptoms that are caused by the tumor before actual cancer treatment is administered.
Radiation therapy is a treatment for prostate cancer that uses powerful x-rays (and other types of radiation) to kill cancer cells and keep them from growing. There are two types of radiation therapy available to cancer patients.
- External radiation. This therapy uses a machine on the outside of the body to send radiation to the cancer.
- Internal radiation. This therapy uses a radioactive substance that is sealed in needles, seeds, wires, or catheters placed into and near the cancer.
Hormone therapy is a treatment for cancer that aims to remove hormones or blocks their action and prevents cancer cells from growing. Male sex hormones can cause prostate cancer to grow.
- Luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone agonists
- Drugs that can prevent the adrenal glands from making androgens include ketoconazole andaminoglutethimide.
Chemotherapy is a treatment for cancer that utilizes drugs to stop the growth of cancer cells. This is done by killing or stopping themselves from dividing. The way that chemotherapy is administered depends on the type and stage of the cancer that is being treated.
Biologic therapy is treatment for cancer that uses cancer patient’s immune system to fight the cancer.
Cryosurgery is a treatment that uses an instrument to freeze and destroy prostate cancer cells.
High-intensity focused ultrasound, a treatment that uses ultrasound to destroy cancer cells.
Proton beam radiation therapy is a type of high-energy that targets tumors with streams of protons.
Depending on the score of your prostate cancer, doctors will be able to choose the right treatment for your cancer.
- How to Pick the Best Treatment for Prostate Cancer PCRI Pamphlet 2010